Author Archives: Lisa Reed

Controlling The Elusive Tiger in Your Backyard


This container mosquito and vector of many arboviruses, including Zika, is not easy to control given it’s often cryptic habits. The diagram above illustrates the many strategies that could be employed to minimize the impact of this and other container species. Read more of Ary Faraji and Isik Unlu’s paper in the Journal of Medical Entomology describing the pros and cons of the various control techniques for this invasive species.



In memoriam Karl Maramorosch (1915-2016)

Maramorosch_KarlKarl Maramorosch passed away on May 9 in Poland while visiting friends. An eminent virologist, entomologist and plant pathologist, Karl was a wealth of information, always willing to talk and often in many languages. His kindness and dedication were unparalleled. He was often the first to arrive in the Entomology Department despite being well into “retirement.” This unique scholar will be sorely missed and our condolences to his friends and family.

His obituary by Professor Gaugler, a Celebratory Tribute and his Wikipedia page. Below is a Vimeo video with Karl before one of the Maramorosch Seminars:

Zika Information Exchange

Members from the Children’s Health Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Health System and Ruzikacdctgers University, including Dina Fonseca, met with Congressman Frank Pallone of New Jersey’s 6th District (D) to discuss the current state of understanding about the epidemiology and ecology of the Zika virus. This fact-finding mission for the Congressman is in anticipation of hearings that Congress will be holding, including those of the House Energy and Commerce Committee that Congressman Pallone seats. Up for discussion in these congressional hearings are a proposed $1.8 billion dollars of emergency finding proposed by President Obama in the upcoming fiscal year. For more information, see: as well as information from the HEC committee:

Robert Lucien May, Jr. 1929 – 2016

Robert Lucien May, Jr. passed away peacefully  at the age of 86 in Parsippany, NJ. He worked for 30 years as a mosquito expert and field technician for the Essex County Mosquito Commission, befitting his expertise in insects and birds. He attended Rutgers for training with the Mosquito Commission of Essex County. Although he did not have a degree, his lifelong study of birds, insects, frogs and astronomy was amazing. He kept personal diaries for over 40 years. He could identify any bird or insect and any of the 29 varieties of mosquitos. He was a member of the Entomological Society of America, the Montclair Bird Club, the New Jersey Audubon Society and the Wild Bird Center of West Caldwell as well as a participant in bird counts. In addition to his love of nature, he also loved music.

The obituary of this remarkable man may be seen  online here. Tribute contributions may be made “in memory of Robert L. May Jr” to the New Jersey Audubon Society  with the added comment: “For the preservation of golden-winged warbler habitat” and any acknowledgment sent to the funeral home or to

Fruitful Collaborations


From Left to Right: Devi Suman, Jaydon Bailey, Rebbeca Heinig, Randy Gaugler, Geoffrey Kemble, Yi Wang, Kshitij Chandel.

Collaborations continue with SpringStar as Jaydon Bailey, Rebecca Heinig, and Geoffrey Kemble visit to work with the Center’s team toward improving the design of the pyriproxyfen autodissemination system. Using 3D printers and precise measurements, the group is moving closer to resolving issues that will maximize pyriproxyfen application onto gravid female mosquitoes seeking to lay eggs. Attractive water sources within the devices are not available for egg-laying, and the egg-laden females leave and get painted with the juvenile hormone inhibitor which will be deposited where the eggs are eventually laid. While the eggs do hatch and develop eventually into pupa, that’s as far as their development goes. They never become adults. By exploiting female behavior, such devices are prime for controlling areas where hidden habitats occur and more traditional control techniques are less effective.

Zika Virus: What New Jersey Residents Should Know

Randy Gaugler & Ary Faraji

Center for Vector Biology – Rutgers University / NJAES

Zika GoldSmith CDC PHIL

Zika virus by Cynthia Goldsmith, CDC Public Health Image Library

Zika virus is not a new disease. Zika virus has been largely confined to equatorial Africa in the tropics where it circulated predominately between forest dwelling mosquitoes and wild primates. The virus was actually discovered from a sentinel monkey that had been placed in a cage in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. But the virus rarely spilled over into human populations even in highly endemic areas of Africa. The explosive reemergence we are current witnessing is truly extraordinary. Human activities are the greatest factor attributing to this spread because of rapid changes in land use and globalization leading to rapid increases in the movement of goods and people.

Zika is a pandemic because the virus is no longer confined to Africa but has spread to Asia, the Pacific Islands, and now the Americas where the World Health Organization is predicting several million infections and classifying Zika a ‘global health emergency’. The virus is not continent-hopping via the spread of mosquitoes, but because of the frequency and rapidity of air travel by humans. An individual can be bitten by an infected mosquito where the virus is circulating, and then fly long distances within a short span of time. Since the incubation period in humans usually lasts several days, if that infected individual is bitten by a local mosquito that can replicate and transmit the virus (i.e. vector competency in the host mosquito), then local infections in a new area may occur. However, only a handful of Aedes mosquitoes are vector competent for Zika virus. The primary vector is the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti; a highly invasive urban species. Their eggs may remain dormant for months in small containers, which contribute to a wide geographical distribution. Not coincidentally, these mosquitoes are abundant in the areas where Zika virus is currently circulating in the Americas. In short, humans are responsible for the transportation of Zika virus, whereas mosquitoes are responsible for transmission of the virus to humans.

What is New Jersey’s vulnerability to Zika virus? The answer is unclear at present. In the U.S., Aedes aegypti is a tropical species reported along the Gulf Coast, Florida and parts of California.  Amazingly this species was just reported to be established in a Capitol Hill neighborhood in Washington DC, where it likely overwinters below ground where temperatures remain above freezing.  New Jersey does not have established populations of Aedes aegypti, but the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is a resident. This mosquito has been shown to carry the Zika virus and is highly suspect as a vector in some locations. Aedes albopictus, like Aedes aegypti, is an invasive species that prefers small water-holding containers (tires, pots, bird baths, gutters, etc.) in close proximity to people in urban centers and preferentially feeds on humans.

Unfortunately, mosquitoes are not the sole means of Zika virus transmission. As with any blood-borne pathogen, transmission through contaminated blood is a serious possibility. The infectious phase of the virus is usually only a few days, but may last longer in some individuals. Consequently, many blood collection agencies are already screening donors to assure they have not traveled from an outbreak area within the previous month. An additional concern is sexual transmission, presumably due to survival of the virus in semen. A case of Zika virus transmission in the U.S. was recently reported in Dallas where an individual became infected after having sex with someone returning from South America. The prevalence of sexual transmission is as yet unknown, but we can be certain that this will greatly complicate efforts to contain outbreaks. Condoms are recommended for men returning from Zika endemic areas.

The good news is that four out of five persons infected with the virus show no symptoms. When the disease is symptomatic it tends to be mild and characterized by fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). Severe disease may require hospitalization but this is uncommon and death is rare. The bad news, of course, is the potential link between infected pregnant women and birth defects in their infants. Brazil has reported a 20-fold increase in microcephaly (reduced brain size) in newborns and has attributed this to Zika virus. Although not scientifically proven, circumstantial evidence strongly implicates the virus, and authorities are urging women in outbreak areas to delay pregnancy. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is recommending special precautions to pregnant women to postpone travel to areas with Zika virus activity or to take extra steps for the prevention of mosquito bites if travel is unavoidable. If microcephaly were not enough, the virus had earlier been implicated with another neurological disease, Guillain-Barre syndrome, in which the immune system attacks peripheral nerves. Studies are underway to examine these associations, albeit researchers are hampered by the lack of a good non-primate model.

It is worth noting here that ultrasound can detect microcephaly. The ultrasound test should be conducted late in the second trimester or early in the third trimester.

Vaccines for Zika virus are currently under development, but will not be available (if ever) for human use for many months if not years. Most mosquito-borne viruses do not have a vaccine or preventative medication available. The best prevention is the avoidance of mosquito bites. If travel to epidemic areas is not avoidable, travelers should take extra protection from mosquito bites by wearing long sleeve shirts and pants, staying indoors with air conditioning when mosquitoes are most active, and using a DEET-based mosquito repellent.

What is New Jersey’s response to the outbreak? There is concern among state, county and university public health workers but not alarm. The closely related chikungunya virus ran amok in the Caribbean last year, but this did not translate into significant outbreaks in the U.S. where window screens, air conditioning, and local mosquito control agencies are prevalent. If outbreaks of Zika virus should occur in New Jersey they are likely to be limited. In the event of an outbreak, suppressing vector populations is the only effective means of reducing disease transmission. The control of the most probably New Jersey vector, the Asian tiger mosquito, is difficult because this species thrives in residential backyards where access is difficult and habitats are scattered. New Jersey’s authorities are currently making plans to incorporate Zika virus into the current arboviral surveillance and to respond aggressively to suspected cases with intensive targeted mosquito control in those localities.

Assistant Professor Microbiologist/Virologist Position at Rutgers

Assistant Professor – Microbiology/Virology:  Applications for a tenure-track assistant professor position in the Rutgers University Department of Entomology/Center for Vector Biology are invited. The position will be 70% research and 30% teaching with a joint appointment in the Entomology and Microbiology Departments. The successful applicant will develop a nationally and internationally recognized program focusing on the biology, ecology and epidemiology of emerging arthropod-borne diseases to reduce their public health impact. Rutgers is a major research university, and competition for funds from external sources such as the state of New Jersey, NIH, Gates Foundation, CDC, USDA, NSF, and EPA is expected.   The successful candidate will interact closely with faculty in the Center for Vector Biology, Entomology Department and Microbiology Departments as well as multidisciplinary working groups in other centers and departments at Rutgers University with a shared interest in emerging infectious disease, climate change, surveillance, host-pathogen coevolution, vector management, diagnostics, risk modeling, and bioterrorism issues. The successful candidate will also be expected to take a leadership role in interactions with the core public health functions of the medical school and the New Jersey Department of Health, as well as communicate with key stakeholder groups as needed. The successful applicant will teach and contribute to teaching graduate and undergraduate courses, particularly infectious disease topics which enhance cooperation with the medical school (e.g., arbovirology, epidemiology, pathogen ecology) and direct undergraduate and graduate students as well as post-doctoral fellows. Participation in departmental and University committees and assistance in undergraduate and graduate curriculum development is expected.

SALARY AND BENEFITS: Academic Rank: Assistant Professor (10 month, tenure track).  Salary is highly competitive and commensurate with education and experience.  Excellent personal benefits package is provided, including one month of annual leave per year, health insurance, life insurance, retirement program, and other institutional benefits.

EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE: Candidates must have a Ph.D. in entomology, microbiology or related area from an accredited institution. Excellent communication, interpersonal skills are desired. Knowledge of arbovirology, epidemiology, pathogen ecology desired.

Application Procedure:  Applications will be accepted until April 15, 2016. Send your letter of application, curriculum vitae, personal statement and the names and addresses of four references electronically or by mail to:  Randy Gaugler, Distinguished Professor & Director Center for Vector Biology, 180 Jones Ave, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8536 USA (